The rise of the average global surface temperature (AGST) is the meaning of global warming. Comparison to the 1850-1900 period, the increment of AGST reaches 0.87oC in 2006-2015 with recent warming is about 0.2oC. Scientists assume temperature is change ±0.10oC per decade.
When 2017, man-made global warming is reached to 1oC. If global warming is increasing the current rate, it assumes AGST will reach to 1.5oC between 2030 and 2052 period. And it will cause high impacts of global warming. Generally, warming is higher in lands than in the ocean.
Currently, many regions experience global warming or its effects, especially in the arctic region(melting of the glacier). Researchers said that emissions caused by humans (both pre-industrial period and present) will exist long period and cause changes in the climatic system. But, those emissions may unable to cause global warming up to 1.5oC alone.
If global warming is reached to 1.5oC, it will cause severe risks for humans and the natural ecosystem. Also, these risks depend on the extent and frequency of warming, vulnerability level, development status, geographical location, and implementation of mitigation and adaptation measures. Some of the risks are irreversible (loss of ecosystem) and some are long-lasting.
Probable climate changes and their possible risks
If AGST reaches to 1.5oC, it may cause several impacts on climate. Increases in temperature, increases of extremely hot days and cold nights, increases in frequency or amount of heavy precipitations, drought and flood conditions, and melting of the glaciers are some of those.
Researchers assume the global mean sea level may be rising around 0.1 meters with the 1.5oC global warming by 2100. However, this depends on future emission patterns. But, the slow rate of the sea level rising allows humans and ecosystems in small islands, deltas, and low-lying coastal areas for adaptation.
Also, increases in ocean acidity level, decreasing ocean oxygen level, and changes in marine biodiversity can happen due to global warming. Not only that but also, global warming has impacts on biodiversity (loss or extinction of species) and coastal, terrestrial, and freshwater environments.
Concerning humans, health (spread of dengue, malaria alike fever) and livelihood problems, food security issues (due to yield reductions), water supply issues (reduce clean water source), and economic growth-related issues may be increased with global warming. Therefore, need to take sufficient adaptation and mitigation measures to reduce these risks. As examples for adaptation;
- Ecosystem rebuilding
- Stop deforestation and degradation
- Sustainable agriculture
- Efficient irrigation
- Adapt to the local ecosystem
- Biodiversity management (agroforestry farming system instead of monocropping)
- Sustainable water usage
- Sustainable land usage, etc.
Climate change risks highly affect on least developed countries. Because they have less capacity to take adaptation and mitigation measures. Hence, risk spreading and sharing are important.
Global warming and Sustainable Development
The impact of global warming is linked to sustainable development. Thus, social, economic, and environmental well-being will be affected by global warming. Also, researchers assess the relationship between global warming and sustainable development goals (including poverty eradication, reducing inequalities, and climate action) to make future policies.
Social and physical infrastructure development is important to attain sustainable development goals. Recent research mention that ethics and equity can use to the address uneven distribution of global warming impacts. Mitigation and adaptation programs can enhance by improving the innovations, modern technologies, human behavior and lifestyle, and finance mobilization.
As well as, these adaptation measures should suit the country’s situations. Future investments should focus on improvements in food and water security, health conditions, environmental conditions. Not only that but also should consider methods to reduce the disaster risks, poverty, and inequality problems. Sustainable development is unable to achieve through weak development/mitigation programs. Also, it is important to implement these programs in a participatory and integrated manner.
Climate action is the thirteenth goal of the United Nation’s sustainable development goals. The objective of this goal is to fight against climate change and its impacts. Three targets establish to attain this objective.
They are; improving the adaptation and mitigation capacities against the climate change-related risks, incorporation between national policies/strategies/plans/ and climate change actions, and improving education, early warnings, and improve awareness about this matter. Climate change is the main thing that affects to achieve sustainable development. Because it makes people more poverty and hunger.
Global warming has a wide range of impacts on our earth. Sea level rise, ocean acidification, ice melting, social effects, and effects on plants and animals are some of those impacts. In this article, we just highlight some key things related to the global warming impact. Also, we would like to inform you about climate change impacts on agriculture in the next articles.
We know that the global population will grow more than 9 billion by 2050. Hence, to ensure food security we have to produce more foods with changing climate and land conditions. So, we need to think about climate-smart agricultural systems that use resources more efficiently, increase yield, and reduce emissions. Not only that but also, we have to change our food habits to reduce food waste.
Click here to read our more articles.