Smart agriculture or smart farming means, incorporation of modern techniques with farming practices. This will help to increase the quantity and quality of production. We know that the global population is increasing continuously. So, to keep the global food security with the effect of climate change, we have to be smart.
These techniques are helping to use resources effectively and efficiently. Field preparation, planting, irrigation, fertilizer/pesticide application, harvesting, and monitoring are the main farming activities. These practices can link with modern techniques and can achieve a better result while reducing wastage.
Also, the farmers can cultivate a large area with less labor. Currently, drone technology, robotic machines, and automated greenhouses are highly used in the agriculture sector.
Drone Technology for Smart Agriculture
Nowadays, drone technology use in the agriculture sector with increasing interest. Drones can use to build up a sustainable agricultural system. Farmers can get a clear vision about their crops or livestock by using drone technique.
As an example, by using the crop monitoring data of the drone (such as leaf color or appearance), the farmers can decide what nutrient should apply to the field. Traceability from farm to folk is one of the key things in agriculture that labor-intensive and time-consuming matter.
The drone technique and GPS location technique provide an answer for this. As well as, to decide replanting, weeding, pruning and training, and thining and earthning up practices, drone data help greatly. The drone technique can also use to soil analysis.
The drones can get soil data by mapping and by using this data farmers can get better soil samples to make irrigation and fertilization decisions. Also, farmers can make predictions about their yield by monitoring crop growth.
There are different types of drones are available with different usage. Rotary type drones are perfect for mapping or inspection of a small area(more suitable for urban areas). Fixed-wing drones are perfect for input applications or mapping of a large area.
Also, farmers should consider the regulations regarding the usage of drones. Technical assistance is helping to install proper drone technology on a farm. So, farmers, agricultural instructors, drone maker, and software supervisor should work together for this task.
Robotic Machines for Smart Agriculture
Traditional agriculture is a labor-consuming activity. Therefore, people develop different types of machinery to do agricultural activities within less time by using the minimum number of laborers.
Tractors and harvesting machines are playing a vital role in this aspect. Tractors are highly used in field preparation activities by connecting different tools into it. Thanks to these technologies farmers can grow a large area without much effort.
The incorporation of the robotic technique into these machines is the next step of the development. So, machines can be managed with a remote (unmanned), or one farmer can manage two or more machines at the same time.
Rapid changes in the population, the effect of climate change, food shortage, and a labor shortage are some of the key social issues all over the world. So, these automobiles (or robotic machines) will greatly help for future agriculture. There is a lot of ongoing research on incorporation between robotic techniques and agricultural machines.
As well as, the robotic technique also link with drone technology to get smart results. The most important thing is farmers can save their time and that time can be used in a valuable activity.
Automated Smart Greenhouse
As the population grows, demand for food is increasing while declining the farming population. Limitation of arable lands, Pest and disease problems, weed problems, and changes in climatic conditions are the major issues in the agriculture sector in some regions.
So, we believe that the automated greenhouse (smart greenhouse) provides an answer to this. The greenhouse is an indoor farming system under the control environment.
Temperature, Carbon dioxide level, humidity, and light intensity are the main climatic factors that affect crop growth. These factors can control by the operator in a smart greenhouse technique.
Therefore, crops received proper growth conditions and farmers can obtain a quality yield. In a smart greenhouse, multiple factors/tools can be managed by using a single computer. The smart greenhouse is a thing beyond the normal greenhouse.
According to the United Nations(UN), the world population will be 9.7 billion in 2050. So, there is a possibility to increase the food shortage in the future, if we don’t change current farming practices and food habits. Also, crop failures were reported all around the world due to extreme weather conditions (flood, drought).
Not only that but also, climate change has an impact on the growth of our staple crops, and farmers are unable to manage optimal time for planting and harvesting. Some farmers also have a problem in the management of large cultivation areas.
Concerning these things, we believe that the incorporation of modern technologies into the current agricultural system which is known as smart agriculture will be helped to overcome these situations.
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